Compositionally diverse magmas erupted close together in space and time within a Karoo flood basalt crater complex. Sterkspruit dataset.xlsx

Geochemical data and mapping from a Karoo flood basalt crater complex reveals new information about the ascent and eruption of magma batches during the earliest phases of flood basalt volcanism. Flood basalt eruptions at Sterkspruit, South Africa began with emplacement of thin lava flows before abruptly switching to explosive phreatomagmatic and magmatic activity that formed a nest of craters, spatter and tuff rings and cones that collectively comprise a crater complex >40 km2 filled by 9–18 km3 of volcaniclastic debris. Rising magma flux rates combined with reduced access of magma to external water led to effusion of thick Karoo flood basalts, burying the crater-complex beneath the >1.5 km-thick Lesotho lava pile.
Sterkspruit dataset